If the veins in your legs that are enlarged, clearly visible under your skin, and twisted or bulging, it’s called varicose veins. Varicose veins are usually painless. Sometimes they can hurt, itch, or burn. If you experience one of these symptoms, it is recommended that you see your doctor.
It is important to diagnose varicose veins as early as possible. This way you can prevent the disease from progressing and avoid more serious complications.
Nearly 30% of the world’s population develop varicose veins. The risk for developing varicose veins is higher for women and increases with age, obesity, lack of exercise, pregnancy, or a genetic predisposition.
Varicose veins can form in any superficial vein in your body. The veins in the lower extremities (foot, calf, thigh, or entire leg) are most commonly affected. Varicose veins can be painful or, on the contrary, completely painless.
When symptoms are present, they can include ankle and leg swelling, heaviness, fullness, aching, restlessness, fatigue, pain, cramps, and itching.
After sitting or standing for a long time these symptoms can worsen due to increased blood levels and pressure in the veins of your lower body. High temperatures can aggravate these symptoms – varicose veins can trouble you more in the summer.
Early and correct diagnosis of varicose veins is essential to prevent further worsening of venous disease. If varicose veins are left untreated, your quality of life can be negatively affected through discomfort and pain, swelling of your legs (oedema), and skin changes.
In addition, varicose veins increase the risk for further severe complications such as thrombophlebitis (inflammatory process causing a blood clot to form), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), variceal bleeding, ulceration, and more.
In varicose veins, the internal walls of the veins are changed or damaged, causing the veins to dilate. The venous valves do not close properly anymore, the blood flows backwards towards the feet and, as a result, pools in the veins.
This blood pooling causes the veins to stretch or twist, leading to the typical appearance of convoluted swellings and/or knot-like bulges on the surface of the skin.
Younger individuals with a genetic predisposition can also acquire varicose veins. Risk factors, such as an occupation that involves extensive standing or sitting or being overweight, can further lead to the development of varicose veins. Typically, varicose veins often appear during pregnancy due to the hormonal changes and the higher blood pressure linked to pregnancy: 6 out of 10 women develop their first varicose veins during pregnancy.
If you have observed varicose veins in your legs, you should visit a doctor to check for underlying causes, particularly if the varicose veins cause pain.
By means of ultrasound, the doctor visualizes the blood flow and checks if the superficial veins or the system of deep veins in your legs is affected.
Medical compression is an easy, drug-free solution that fits most body shapes. A medical compression product is an elastic textile (sock, stocking, or pantyhose) that exerts an active pressure along the leg promoting venous circulation and the return of blood to the heart.
The elastic material of the compression stocking, with stronger compression at the ankle and less going up the leg, helps to compensate for the lack of activation of the venous muscle pump system. It gently squeezes the vein walls together, thereby easing blood flow back towards the heart, reducing venous pressure, and improving overall circulation.
From the very first use, you should feel a benefit: pain and heavy leg sensations decrease. Medical compression also aims to prevent complications.
Injection of a liquid, foam, or glue (e.g. cyanoacrylate) under ultrasound guidance, that causes the veins to shrink and collapse.
Surgical removal of varicose veins. Superficial veins are removed through small incisions (micro-incision phlebectomy), deep veins via vein stripping.
Closing varicose veins with thermal energy (laser or radiofrequency)
If varicose veins are left untreated, this venous disorder may progress into more severe conditions like chronic venous insufficiency that cause:
Persistent chronic venous disorder and varicose veins can also lead to severe side effects like inflamed veins (phlebitis) or the formation of a blood clot in a vein (thrombosis), that may ultimately lead to a pulmonary embolism.